Indian Subsidiary Registration

An Indian subsidiary is any corporation that is incorporated in India and is owned by a foreign company. The registration process for Indian Subsidiary Companies is governed by the Companies Act, 2013. An Indian subsidiary company is one in which a foreign corporation owns and controls a sizable portion of the Indian corporation. Getting legal counsel is essential before registering a foreign subsidiary in India.

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An Indian subsidiary – Overview

Due to expanding opportunities, foreign investors are drawn to invest in India. As a result, there is an increase in foreign investment in India across all sectors. The surge in foreign direct investment into India has led to a boom in the Indian economy ever since Economic Liberalization took place in 1991.

The Foreign Exchange Regulation Act was repealed by the government when the Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA) was introduced in 1999. (FERA). With the help of FEMA, investing in India became simpler. For the creation and registration of Indian Subsidiary Companies, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) issues certain regulations.

The quantity of foreign investment in India has seen significant changes as a result of recent modifications to the country’s FDI policy, which took effect in April 2020. According to this legislation, foreign investors must obtain government authorisation before making investments in India. India has territorial boundaries with seven other nations. Prior to this change, investing in India was simple and required fewer processes. Therefore, investment from the aforementioned seven nations would need prior clearance from the appropriate regulatory body. The creation of an Indian subsidiary business necessitates adherence to certain statutory laws.

Statutory Meaning

A subsidiary company is defined as a company that is controlled by another business under section 2(87) of the Companies Act, 2013.It is essential to comprehend what a holding company means in order to underline the meaning of a subsidiary firm.

A holding company is defined as an organization that owns more than 50% of another company under Section 2(46) of the Companies Act, 2013. Consequently, the previous company is referred to as a holding company if it has authority over the management of another business. The Companies Act of 2013 defines an Indian subsidiary company. A company under the ownership of a foreign corporation is referred to as an Indian subsidiary company. As a result, the foreign company will hold more than 50% of the Indian subsidiary’s paid-up share capital.

To put it another way, the foreign firm will be regarded as the holding company and will have authority over the subsidiary. The laws in effect in India must be adhered to if a subsidiary is established there. The idea of a separate legal entity would likewise apply to an Indian subsidiary firm when it comes to its legal position.

The shareholders and directors of the subsidiary therefore have a different status than the corporation.
A private limited company or a public limited company may be registered as an Indian subsidiary under the Companies Act, 2013, depending on the situation.


Indian foreign direct investment (FDI)

A foreign corporation making a direct or indirect investment in a private limited company is said to be making a foreign direct investment. Shares of an Indian private limited company are purchased or subscribed for by the foreign corporation. But the government has altered the conditions for FDI in India.
If an investment is coming from a nation that has land bordering India, prior government clearance will be necessary. The registration of the Indian subsidiary firm would, however, bring in a lot of foreign capital.

Continuous Succession

When a foreign entity establishes a subsidiary, it can continue to be successful even after significant management changes within the company. The subsidiary company’s status won’t change overnight.
Operations can be readily carried out once a company is formed in India.

Separate and Unrelated Entity

The company, or Indian subsidiary, exists independently of its foreign parent. Even if there is management authority over the Indian subsidiary, this organization nonetheless has a distinct legal existence from its international parent.

Small Liability

An Indian subsidiary company would be subject to the same limited liability rules as private and public limited businesses. Limited liability denotes that each member’s obligation is capped at a certain sum.
Directors and shareholders would be considered corporate members. In the event that the corporation suffered a loss, the limited liability theory would shield the directors and stockholders. The business would be responsible for any debts owed to third parties despite its limited liability. However, this concept prohibits any third-party creditor from seizing the shareholders’ and directors’ personal assets.

Extent of diversification

A foreign firm that wants to increase its operations in India can do so by forming an Indian subsidiary company. Through this procedure, new markets and goods can be introduced. But before doing so, it’s crucial to conduct careful market research. Through this process, new endeavors can be accomplished.

Can Sue

The business can sign contracts and agreements since it is a distinct legal entity. An individual (whether a natural person or an artificial person) may contract under the 2013 Companies Act. Such an entity has the authority to make contracts and to bring legal actions (suit) against other parties for any type of duty breach.

Buy real estate in India

Any human being or artificial being in India has the ability to buy real estate. Similar to how individuals can purchase properties in India under the appropriate transfer rules. Thus, registering an Indian subsidiary business in India has various advantages.

Organization that regulates Indian subsidiaries

The Ministry of Corporate Affairs is the primary regulating body for the registration of Indian subsidiary companies (MCA). In addition, all issues pertaining to the procedures for incorporating a business would be handled by the Registrar of Companies (ROC). The Reserve Bank of India is another regulatory body that oversees Indian Subsidiary compliance.

Post Registration Compliances

Various compliances must be followed in order to complete the Indian Subsidiary Registration Process.Such an entity shall maintain compliance with the following requirements:

  • Companies Act of 2013 – Any company founded in India must abide by the requirements of the Companies Act of 2013.
  • Foreign Exchange Management Act of 1999 – A foreign firm planning to open an office in India must abide by the country’s relevant foreign exchange rules.
  • The Indian subsidiary company must comply with the relevant RBI Compliances in addition to the Foreign Exchange Management Act.
  • All businesses operating in India are required to file income tax returns under the Income Tax Act of 1961.
  • In India, the standard corporate tax rate is currently 22%. Therefore, a foreign firm creating an Indian subsidiary company must adhere to the appropriate tax rates.
  • Annual ROC and MCA Returns – Companies must also submit annual compliance reports to the Ministry of Corporate Affairs and the Registrar of Companies.
  • Securities Exchange Board of India: Compliance with relevant SEBI legislation must be adhered to if an Indian subsidiary business issues its securities in a stock exchange.
  • Compliance is required by the SEBI (Listing Obligations and Disclosure Regulations).

Documents Required

  • PAN Card
  • Aadhaar Card
  • Any form of Address Proof
  • Passport, Visa if the applicant is a foreign national
  • Any identification proof provided by the foreign national must be attested and certified by an India Consulate
  • DIN – Directors Identification Number
  • Digital Signature Certificate
  • Any utility bills of the premises- If the premises is owned by the company
  • If the premises are not owned by the company, then the lease agreement has to be produced
  • Address Proof of the Registered Office
  • Memorandum of Association (MOA) and Articles of Association (AOA) for incorporating the Indian Subsidiary


A subsidiary company is an organization that is under the control of the parent company or the holding company, as defined by the Companies Act of 2013. Therefore, a foreign parent business or holding company controls an Indian subsidiary. An organization that has its parent company registered in India can be considered a subsidiary. However, a foreign corporation controls an Indian subsidiary, which is an entity. Thus, the two aforementioned entities are distinct.
The level of control must be at least 50% under the 2013 Companies Act. However, this percentage may be higher than the figure mentioned above.
The subsidiary may engage in any activities as per the MOA. For the subsidiary, compliance with the relevant FEMA and RBI laws must be maintained.
Yes, the appointment of a foreign director for a subsidiary company is required. It would be impossible to oversee the operations of a subsidiary company without performing this step.
1. The following entities can be used by a foreign corporation that plans to establish a subsidiary:

• Private Business – The following entities can be used by a foreign corporation that plans to establish a subsidiary:

• Limited Liability Company – A public limited corporation can be established as a subsidiary.

A stock exchange is permitted to list the shares of such a business.

2. The structure listed below cannot be used as a subsidiary:

OPC (One Person Company) – A one person company, as the name suggests, only has one shareholder and one director. The same person serves as a director and shareholder. The shareholder or director must be an Indian citizen. For a subsidiary, a foreign director is necessary. Because of this, the OPC cannot be regarded as a structure appropriate for a subsidiary.

The Indian subsidiary may indeed be controlled by an NRI or foreigner.

Typically, the length of time for this process depends on how long it takes various Indian authorities. For the name reservation procedure, for instance, a window of 60 days is specified. A subsidiary business selects the name for the aforementioned time frame. It would take roughly 15 to 20 working days to coordinate with other authorities.

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